Forecasts that originate from the bottom; for example, aggregating detailed forecast (e.g., SKU level by Product/Package/Location) to a higher level (e.g., by Product/Package or Product). However, in practice, Marketing, Sales, and Management first review and adjust aggregate forecasts, which are then forced down to a detail level, using an apportionment method.

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Bill of Material (BOM)
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Box-Jenkins Model